Mr. Abe has said the government will fund the payments by encouraging more women and older people to work, and his party has vowed to raise the country’s consumption tax to 10 percent in the fall, as previously scheduled.
All five major opposition parties said they would not raise the tax, although Yukio Edano, leader of the Constitutional Democrats, says the government has a responsibility to secure the retirement of its citizens.
“Isn’t it the job of the government to figure out how we can build a system that will work even if people don’t save 20 million yen?” he said last month.
In his final campaign speech on Saturday, Mr. Abe dismissed the opposition’s criticism.
“Regarding pensions and other social security benefits, the opposition parties are only fanning unease among the people without presenting alternative plans,” he said.
A supporter at the rally said he did not plan to depend on the government for his retirement.
“I will take care of myself,” said Ichiro Hasumi, 65, a retired shipping company worker who said he was voting for Mr. Abe’s party because “he will best protect the national interest.”
“It’s Japan first,” he added.
Mr. Abe has worked hard to establish himself as a leader on the world stage, persistently courting Mr. Trump and working to improve ties with President Xi Jinping of China. During Mr. Trump’s visit to Japan in May, the relationship seemed to pay off when the American president said on Twitter that he would hold off on thorny trade negotiations until after the Japanese election this month.
Voters also view the Liberal Democrats as a pillar of stability. “It’s the Liberal Democrats that have built Japan to what it is now,” said Yukiko Miyago, 80, as she went to the polls in the Asakusa District of Tokyo early Sunday morning local time. “Aren’t people enjoying affluent living in this society with developed technology, science, information and all?”
For the opposition, it can be hard to counter the inertia that has kept Mr. Abe in power.
“Opposition parties tend to get pushed into an anti-Abe or anti-status-quo position,“ said Kristi Govella, an assistant professor of Asian studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. “And that can be a difficult place to build a base of new, exciting policy ideas from.”